What is a micro distillery


Micro distillery is really a name that is given to a small �boutique� like distillery. This term is usually used in the USA, however one can find many such small distilleries around Europe for years. These distilleries tend to be known as cognac distilleries or single malt whiskey distilleries that sell their single malt brands. Today countries like Switzerland and London have seen the improvement of the micro-distillery.

New micro-distilleries produce just spirits. The vodka is one of the popular mood that are seasonally flavored. Lots of mini distilleries for vodka and gin have emerged in the UK as well as the States. Small distilleries like these types of created many unique manufacturers of spirits which can be marketed and created in such a way that they can resembled high class dining places instead of just alcoholic beverages marketing establishments. From these types of micro-distilleries, the new celebrity distiller emerged and it has grow to be very popular.

A micro distillery can easily sell �hand designed whiskey� that has a unique and specific flavor. Numerous folk have got started their very own distilling by operating micro distilleries that creates distinctive and specific gourmet spirits that include vodka, whiskey, rum and so on. This particular trend has literally �exploded� in the united states and many �gourmet-foodies� have started producing their own wine and beer in your own home simply because people have discovered out that it is not really unlawful and they can easily micro-distill spirits. Many of these micro-distilleries are on farms and the fruits/vegetables that are in your area grown are utilized. Companies that generate less than 10, 000 gallons of the spirit are considered micro-distilleries. Gins and different vodkas tend to be infused with wild berries, pumpkin and grapefruits.


It’s a recognized proven fact that micro-distilled liquors as well as mood are a fantastic income opportunity. This movement is growing because more and more entrepreneurs have recognized that they can follow within the footsteps associated with prosperous micro-distillers who have really created a huge success. You will have to have more than simply enthusiasm for distilling spirits � you will need know-how as well as money to get into the micro-distillery business. Many successful distillers concentrate on a particular single �special� product while others opt for range. While some see on their own because manufacturers from the spirit without any thought of marketing and advertising, other people see on their own as providers of these spirits.

Micro distillery entrepreneurs find that they need to really do a lot of ground work before getting into the company. The best way to start having your own micro-distillery is to have a plan that particulars all anticipated monetary expenses along with the projected income. This plan of action also needs to outline regarding exactly how you are going to operate the actual micro-distillery. This plan will have to be submitted to your bank or to any feasible investor to get you a mortgage. Your business technique will have to be figured out and you will need to make a decision regardless of whether you’ll focus on a number of mood or a specific spirit, its quality and so on. Lots of money will have to be invested before you start operating the micro distillery and start earning the cash you spent back! Initial costs will probably be nearly $10, 000 or even more.


Web Hosting Advice To Help You Get Your Website Out There

Does paying a lot of money for web hosting bill make you cringe?

Look at backup host sites if you run into unfavorable services of a web host. If your first choice turns out to be problematic, you can find another host and move quickly.

Your host will have a tighter grip on the controls of your domain control than you!

When you’re looking for a place to host a website, pick a company that is located within your niche’s country. For example, if you want to sell things to people in Ireland, the web hosting data center for your site should also be in France.

You should ask about the security precautions in place when choosing a web host. In today’s society, websites come under attack quite often, and there are various possible threats. Be absolutely certain your host has procedures to deal with various hackers and viral attacks. You should ask what the potential risks are for your website if the host comes under attack.

Choose monthly payments instead of one-time lump sums when negotiating with a whole year. It is impossible to know how good business will be in the future. If the web hosting company goes out of business, service declines or your company outgrows your current hosting plan, unless the host decides otherwise.

Choose a web hosting company that will accommodate your site’s eventual growth. A single HTML page requires very little space, but adding videos and pictures quickly causes you to be in need of much more space.

If you’re striving for a site that’s safe, look for secure server certificates.

Free web hosts are available if you’re looking to save you a significant amount of money. This usually means that they will put advertisements on your site, and the space available to store your site will be limited.If you want your site to look professional, though, avoid this kind of web hosting.

Does the web host which are you are considering offer a refund guarantee if you are not satisfied? If you find the hosting service isn’t right for you within the first 30 days after ordering it, there should be some stipulation in the contract that states you can cancel the contract and get your money back. Not every web host is as good as what they advertise.

It is possible to find an affordable, effective hosting company. The success of your online business relies on a well-structured and efficient web host. This does not need to cost you an outrageous amount of money, either. The tips you have read here will help you choose a web host that works for you.

Have some fun while you sip on alcoholic beverages created in your house distilling apparatus

If you want to produce tasty alcoholic beverages with your own hands while additionally saving lots of money along the way you’ll be able to surely have some fun as you sip on alcohol consumption made at home distilling equipment. The right alcohol distillation gear will consistently provide secure and real alcohol on need and you will additionally reveal your heady drinks with friends and family.

If you have experienced hands then you can certainly produce your personal distilling equipment right in your own home with the help of any copper container or even a stainless steel milk can or even any other vessel made from stainless steel. Even though copper has much better heat conductivity properties than stainless steel, it is not as easy to clean as stainless steel and can also corrode with time. Stainless steel equipment not only appears great however may last for ages whilst delivering delicious amounts of your chosen alcoholic beverages after each alcohol distillation procedure.

Whilst a industrial distillation plant might seem like a maze of lengthy vessels and various water lines entering and leaving those vessels, your home distilling equipment would be quite simple in comparison since this particular apparatus might permit you to produce a batch of the chosen alcoholic beverages such as vodka, rum, whiskey, and so on after each distilling procedure. The size of your yield could be between 1 and 5 liters depending on the dimension of your distillation vessel and the quantity of your fermented blend or mash, although bigger kits will also be obtainable. You need to use hardy yeast such as Turbo yeast to ensure your mash is actually tough sufficient to produce strong and extremely smooth alcohol or ethanol to begin with.

Whilst readymade house distilling gear in kit type might be more expensive, it will also permit you to properly create more powerful alcohols as well as spirits. Since distilling involves continuous boiling of the mash, it would be a much better option to begin in the right method so as to receive pure ethanol on a steady basis instead of jeopardizing life and limb through trying to steam an inflammable mixture or allowing pollutants such as acetone or even methanol to get into your collection vessel. A well-designed kit made out of stainless steel and enclosed in appealing plastic won’t boost the look of your house or garage but additionally create delectable drops of alcoholic beverages on requirement.

Your house distillation kit will include a heating system source such as a good inbuilt electrical stove, a stainless steel vessel for boiling the mash, stainless steel tubes for directing the alcohol vapors from that vessel, a cooling source such as an inbuilt fan rather than water, and a collection vessel installed having a charcoal filter to purify the actual alcohol prior to it drips down into the actual vessel. This type of compact package should also feature a copper mesh or ceramic raschig rings as packing to prevent contaminants from getting into the selection vessel. You should simply surf over to most respected online retailers on the internet to search out a concise kit that has all these features to produce small batches of real and strong alcoholic beverages that can further be flavor with various essences to enhance your own drinking encounter.

Should you truly want to experience the enjoyable world of alcohol then you can also create various kinds of alcohols as well as spirits right at home, whilst saving a substantial amount of money too. You can have enjoyable while you sip on alcohol made in your house distilling equipment and can also share this heady nectar with your loved ones even while you enhance your distilling abilities with every tasty batch.

Use online vat registration for faster and safe vat enrolling

If you are a trader based in the UK or any other EU country that has adopted vat as a medium of taxation then you should use online VAT registration for faster and secure vat registering. Most countries have computerised their vat operations so you too should save on effort and time by utilizing all online vat services provided by your own vat department.

In the UK vat rules specify that you can make an application for vat registration in case your taxable sales rise over the vat threshold limit of £70,000 in the past 12 months or if you feel they will do so within the next 30 days, although you can still register even before your sales touch this figure. However, you are able to at the moment only complete basic vat online registration by filling and submitting vat form 1 online. This method is generally used by small businesses. If your business is a partnership firm, a group of companies, or plans to do business internationally then you can download and print all vat registration forms but will probably be required to fill the form manually before sending it to the HM Revenue and Customs or hmrc vat department.

If you are planning to go in for online vat registration in another eu country which has adopted vat then you’ll need to first study all applicable vat rules before you register your business online. Should you have trouble in deciphering uk vat or eu vat rules then its better if you appoint a vat agent or perhaps a customs and excise customs vat agent in case you intend to conduct your business on an international level. This will enable you to remain safe while following all vat rules in several countries with falling foul of any department.

Once you send your vat online registration form to the hmrc department then you will get a vat questionnaire within 15 days that will need additional details to be submitted such as your business address, telephone and fax numbers, banking account numbers, and a lot of other details associated with your business together with a few purchase and sales invoices.

Once your application is approved you will receive your vat number and you will now need to alter your invoicing method to issue vat invoices for all of your sales. This vat invoice will have to display your vat no, vat rate, vat amount and also the same will also need to be shown in your vat returns which will have to be submitted to the hmrc vat department at regular intervals.

Currently, in the UK there are 3 types of vat rates applicable to all goods and services. The standard vat rates are 17.5% that is set to raise to 20% from January 4, 2011 onwards. There’s a reduced vat rate of 5% plus a zero vat rate on specific goods and services that will remain the same. There are also certain goods and services which are vat exempt. However, the vat rates are different in each eu country although the basic concept of charging vat tax continues to be same in most vat enabled countries.

If you wish to register your organization for vat then going online will help save your time and also enable you to securely complete the required process required for vat registration. You should simply log on to the hmrc vat department if your business is based in the UK or ask your vat agent to do so for you before using online vat registration to get registered as being a vat dealer without having problem.

Steps to make a moonshine still at home

How to make a moonshine is still exactly what most people who are interested in producing their own liquor are curious about. There are two kinds of moonshine stills that can be used for distillation of moonshine at home. They are the Reflux still and the Container Still. These are fairly easy to make as well as to use.

The Container still consists of two elements which are the Condenser and the Container. The container is a pot utilized to warm the actual brew and also the condenser is used for transforming the actual vaports or getting away spirits into fluid. All you need is definitely an old pressure cooker (aluminum or stainless steel) with a capacity of 1 gallon. This will have a cover that suits firmly. To create the condenser you need to have copper mineral tubing that is 10 mm diameter as well as wind it over something like a broom shank that is wrapped tightly along with papers as well as tape to get the desired size, so that it forms a coil. Next you would have to connect one end of the tube and fill up the tube with ordinary sodium by using a funnel. When that is done seal the other end so that the tube does not failure when you bend it. This can ensure it is simple for you to cover it round the broom shank. After the coil is created saw off or unplug the ends as well as take all the salt out. The cooler you keep the coils, the more effectively the condenser works.

Take a bucket and drill a pit in its side and pass the coil (bottom end) though it. The other (top) end of the pipe should be a good inch underneath the bucket top. Fit the coil so that the bottom pipe finish sticks out of the hole after which seal the starting and gaps with a waterproof sealant. Make sure that there’s an opening on the container lid so that the vapors can get away. Once you do that fix a meter of plastic tubing over the opening so that these vapors are caught and can be transferred into the coil in the condenser.

If you wish to build your personal moonshine still at home then you should know that it may not be a legal thing to do in the first place. The reason being there are many laws and regulations handed that limit the manufacturing of moonshine at home. Nevertheless there is nothing illegal regarding actually building a moonshine still in many places you could still be busting the law. If you go to check your local library or go online you will discover a lot of information and instructions as to steps to make a moonshine still in your own home.

How to make a moonshine still is what you get in publications and online sites that take you step-by-step though all of the methods that are involved in generating different types of spirit alcohols.

Is Producing Your Own Product A Sensible Way To Earn On The Web

With regards to making money online you are going to find that there are plenty of different methods that men and women use to be able to accomplish their goals. There are two very popular ways that individuals make money on the internet and that is by using Google Adsense to earn cash from clicks and advertising affiliate products in order to earn commissions. You are going to discover that there�s another way that plenty of men and women make a living on the internet however there�s a lot more work entailed in utilizing this other strategy. Below you�re going to discover everything you�re going to need to do if you decide to generate your own digital products in order to make cash on the net.

You�re going to find that the information you have in your head can be enough for you to write an E book which addresses a certain problem that folks may have. When you begin generating an E book to help individuals with a certain problem you will want to ensure you have unique information so individuals will be satisfied with their purchase. If you provide people with information that they are able to actually use that they have not found elsewhere they will be happy with their purchase and not be considering a refund.

Once you have developed an informative guide the next step will be to generate an internet site that promotes this product and allows men and women to buy it direct from the site. There are plenty of men and women would learn how to produce your own website using the knowledge they find on the internet but other men and women can�t grasp this and for those men and women, hiring somebody to do it for them will be their best option. You need to remember that this isn�t something that will be cheap, but if you want to sell a product on the net a site is necessary.

At this time one of the smartest things to do would to be creating an affiliate program so that you are able to have internet marketers selling your product for you. You should also keep in mind that to get as many individuals promoting your product as possible, giving them 50% or more as a commission is actually a good idea. Once you are becoming successful with your first product you are going to discover that since you will not have to be marketing yourself you are able to invest your time more wisely by producing a new product to begin selling. For those of you who would like to set up an affiliate program but do not want to manage it yourself you are going to find that there are programs online which can help you accomplish this.

These are the standard steps to establishing your own product in order to begin making cash online. At this point you only have to decide if you want to choose this path for making cash online or if you�d like to go for something easier like becoming an affiliate yourself.

Carbonated water helps reduce all the symptoms of indigestion

Carbonated water helps reduce the symptoms of indigestion (dyspepsia) as well as constipation, based on a recent study in the European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (2002; 14: 9919).

Dyspepsia is characterized by a group of symptoms such as discomfort or perhaps pain in the upper abdomen, early sense associated with fullness after eating, bloatedness, belching, nausea, and sometimes vomiting. Roughly 25% of people living in Western communities are afflicted by dyspepsia every year, and the problem is the reason for 2 to 5% of the trips to primary treatment providers . Inadequate movement within the intestinal tract (peristalsis) is actually believed to be an important cause of dyspepsia. Other gastrointestinal issues, like irritable bowel syndrome as well as constipation, frequently accompany dyspepsia.

Antacid medicationsover the counter acid neutralizers, prescription medications that obstruct stomach acid generation, as well as medications that activate peristalsisare primary therapies for dyspepsia. Nevertheless, antacids can interfere with the digestion and also absorption of nutrients, as well as there is a probable relationship involving long-term use of the acid-blocking drugs and elevated probability of stomach cancer. Various healthcare services advise dietary modifications, including consuming smaller frequent meals, reducing excess fat intake, and also identifying as well as staying away from distinct aggravating food items. With regard to smokers with dyspepsia, quitting smoking cigarettes is likewise advocated. Constipation is actually dealt with with increased water and fiber intake. Laxative medications may also be prescribed by doctors by a few practitioners, while some might test with regard to food sensitivities and also imbalances in the bacteria of the colon and treat these to alleviate constipation.

In this research, carbonated water had been compared with tap water because of its effect on dyspepsia, constipation, and standard digestion of food. Twenty-one people with indigestion and constipation had been randomly designated to consume at least 1. 5 liters every day of either carbonated or simply plain tap water for at least 15 days or till the conclusion of the 30-day trial. At the beginning and also the conclusion of the trial all the participants were given indigestion as well as constipation questionnaires and also tests to gauge stomach fullness right after eating, gastric emptying (movement associated with food out from the stomach), gallbladder emptying, as well as intestinal tract transit time (the period with regard to ingested substances to travel from mouth area to anus).

Ratings about the dyspepsia and constipation questionnaires were considerably better for those treated using carbonated water than people who drank plain tap water. Eight of the ten individuals within the carbonated water group had marked improvement in dyspepsia ratings at the conclusion of the test, 2 had absolutely no change and one worsened. In comparison, 7 of eleven people in the plain tap water group experienced deteriorating of dyspepsia scores, and only four experienced betterment. Constipation scores improved with regard to eight people and worsened for two following carbonated water treatment, whilst scores for five individuals improved and six worsened within the plain tap water team. Extra assessment uncovered that carbonated water specifically decreased early stomach fullness and increased gallbladder emptying, whilst plain tap water did not.

Carbonated water has been employed for centuries to treat digestive complaints, yet virtually no investigation is present to support its effectiveness. The carbonated water utilized in this test not merely had significantly more carbon dioxide than actually plain tap water, but additionally had been observed to possess much higher amounts of minerals including sodium, potassium, sulfate, fluoride, chloride, magnesium, and calcium. Various other studies have shown that both the bubbles associated with carbon dioxide and the presence of higher levels of minerals can certainly stimulate digestive function. Additional investigation is needed to ascertain whether this particular mineral-rich carbonated water would be more effective in reducing dyspepsia than would carbonated plain tap water.

Procedure on How to Make Absinthe

How to make absinthe? This is certainly one question which is being asked by connoisseurs of alcohol based drinks more often nowadays because there is heightened curiosity about absinthe. The reason is quite simple to comprehend, absinthe has created a spectacular return after being prohibited for almost a hundred years.

There are 2 techniques to answer the question, how to make absinthe? One of many ways would be detailing how to prepare an absinthe drink and the other would be how to create the liquor absinthe. In this post we’re going to discuss how to prepare the liquor making use of standard a recipe and herbs.

Absinthe is manufactured using various alpine herbs including wormwood or Artemisia absinthium. Absinthe was initially used as a bitter digestive tonic. Top quality absinthe is manufactured by soaking wormwood and other herbs in alcohol and then distilling the solution. Wormwood contains thujone which is the active component in absinthe and gives absinthe its bitter taste.

The components required to create absinthe are 750 ml of vodka or any neutral spirit, herbs such as wormwood, hyssop, fennel seed, anise seed, angelica root, lemon balm, veronica, sage, coriander, mint, thyme and cardamom. To prepare green absinthe coriander and mint are being used while to ready red absinthe green herbs are excluded and red herbs like paprika are used.

With respect to the colour of absinthe desired; ground all of the herbs finely and set in a cup. Fine grounding of herbs results in efficient removal of herbal constituents. The finely ground herbal mixture is included with vodka or some other neutral spirit and placed into a jar and sealed.

The bottle or jar will then be kept in cold and dark area for nearly 2 months. The longer you keep the higher is the infusion of herbs inside the solution. This technique is known as as maceration. The duration of maceration will also influence the flavour of the last product.

Following the mixture is kept for two months, then it is removed and strained. The strained liquid is going to be brown in color and extremely bitter. This liquid will then be distilled to lessen the bitterness and present it a clear hue. This liquid is known as as the “absinthe blanche”. Now you may add other flavoring and colouring herbs such as hyssop, mint and coriander if you want a green absinthe or paprika if you need a red absinthe. This second maceration gives the absinthe its final flavor and color.

While combining the distillate with flavoring herbs you should further thin down the absinthe with vodka. Retain for a fortnight and your absinthe is completely ready.

Absinthe needs to be enjoyed using the conventional ritual. Absinthe is the only liquor that really needs an intricate ritual making use of special absinthe spoon, absinthe glass, sugar cube, cold water, and also absinthe fountain.

You can create your very own absinthe by a much simpler method than the one already stated. Merely buy genuine absinthe essence which is created working with classic absinthe recipe and mix it with vodka or any other neutral spirit, and your absinthe is just about to serve. Absinthekit.com is definitely a trusted name from which you possibly can source genuine absinthe essences of various strengths.

Visit absinthekit.com for additional info on absinthe essence and also other absinthe accessories like absinthe spoons, absinthe glasses as well as absinthe labels.

Flagler college sports information and news services

Created in 1917, Flagler County is situated in the state of Florida. This small county has a human population of 83,084 and it has been named after Henry Morrison Flagler. Henry Morrison Flagler was a well-known and very successful tycoon that had contributed tremendously in the growth of the east coast in Florida. A real estate and railway developer, he was the founding father of the Florida East Coast railway.

Offering a 4 year course in liberal arts studies is Flagler College. More popularly referred to as Flagler, this college is situated in St. Augustine in Florida. An integral part of the Independent Colleges and Universities of Florida, Flagler College was reported to be one of the best institutions in south east United States to present studies in liberal arts. It is also listed as one of Americas best collages. This college is additionally known for its beautiful campus and also the Princeton Review has included it in its Best 366 College Rankings.

With a proven record of academic success, Flagler College also partakes in a number of sports and athletic activities. Among varsity sports they participate in twelve categories of the Division II of the NCAA. Basketball, golf, soccer, cross country and tennis are games that enjoy involvement from both men and women. Baseball is played by men only and Volleyball is played only by the women from the college. The Flagler sports teams go by the name of the Saints.

The Flagler sports teams or Saints have a official dedicated club known as the Saints Club. Working with the same principles as those of Flagler College, they aim towards giving their athletes the top experience in sports with the same focus as that relating to academics. They strive towards developing well rounded and complete individuals who graduate onto becoming people with integrity and sportsmanship.

The Saints Club continues to be a key component in taking Flagler College to the Division II in the NCAA because of their consistent performance of the athletes who have won conference championships and also have gone through to play post season matches. They are financially helped by the members who include parents, alumni and friends by way of their substantial contribution to the club. These resources help in providing scholarships, bear travel expenses and meet equipment costs, thus providing all of the support which they require.

The Flagler College also holds strength and conditioning programs that help in nurturing and exploring an athletes total potential. This program not only reaches to strength and endurance training but additionally helps with building the athletes mental framework. This program employs specific training programs that concentrate on in season, post season and pre season preparations. The agenda of these training programs is to develop their athletes complete potential by looking into making them more flexible, strong, agile and fast.

Flagler College has also been in the news because of its numerous athletic venues and facilities. Of these, their Tennis centre is considered to be among the very best amongst all the small collages in the entire State of Florida.

The institution has a single newspaper publication known as the Gargoyle and an yearly literary journal known as the Flagler Review that provides all the information and facts on the college. They’ve got a very active website called flagler.edu that keeps users up to date about the sports news and other academic developments that occur within the college campus.

Make use of the finest distilling yeast to create strong alcohols as well as the spirits

Either you operate a distillery that makes leading alcoholic beverages or choose a home kit to make these heady drinks in small batches, you should use the most effective distilling yeast to have strong alcohols and as well as spirits. These particular yeasts really should be able to ferment strongly in undesirable situations like excessive temperatures and even higher alcohol strengths.

There can be lots of kinds of production yeasts that are used in fermentation of ethanol or alcohol as it is also regarded. In spite of this, most alcohols including beer and wine make use of a lot of cousins of the saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast during the course of the sugar fermentation method. This yeast, just like others aims at on a great deal of fermentable sugars in the mash of water with other key ingredients like wheat, barley, grapes or other ingredients according to your requirements as well as transforms those sugars right into alcohol. But, a good number of forms of yeast can not ferment in temperatures preceding 25 degrees Celsius. They even die the moment alcohol strength rises to far better levels.

If you intend to help in fermenting mash so as to get a tougher alcohol which is to be further strengthened all the way through the distillation procedure then you are in need of hardy distilling yeast confident enough of handling much higher yeast temperature and also enduring in high alcohol content level. This form of yeast is readily available in the way of turbo yeast. This yeast can manage high sugar content level, high alcohol content level and also higher temperatures easily. On the other hand, you should certainly be aware of that much higher content level of alcohol will need much longer fermenting time whilst this yeast can perform in a greater border of malfunction in terms of temperature and alcohol proof level fluctuations.

If you are motivated in relation to working on the quantity and as well as quality of your alcoholic beverages then you need to try out turbo yeast in small batches when you want to test the effects for yourself. This super yeast will boost your yield per batch and even also let you to extract superb quality of alcohol from weak mashes. This distillers yeast is also improved with micro nutrients to give you a safer and as well as purer sort of alcohol. This yeast also ferments at a swifter pace in turn saving valuable time, which can be a benefit especially if you are a commercial distiller.

You should really also determine that your distilling progression adopts unique controls to be able to make alcohols or spirits with greater consistency. Along with the right distillation and even condensing equipment, you will as well require alcohols that have been completely fermented to the ideal possible yeast. This will turn out in more powerful alcohols and spirits at the end of the distillation procedure and will also make drinks with the targeted amount of color, acidity, taste, as well as most importantly, character.

Still, it is the right yeast fermentation method by means of the far better quality of yeast that will be sure that proper distillation at the end of the line. If you have been with the use of homemade yeast then it might not be fortified with extra nutrients or it might not be able to provide regularity in the end product. What you must have is super yeast together with turboyeast that is designed while using strict quality checks and as well as is able to make it through and ferment through undesirable manufacturing conditions. The final result in the way of delicious alcoholic beverages of high quality along with high strength will convince you to keep with this yeast for life.

Various types of alcohols as well as spirits must have matching yeast like the wine yeast, whiskey yeast, vodka yeast, etc to create the required alcoholic beverages. However, if your yeast is not tolerant to high alcohol and also temperature levels then your costs and rejection levels will certainly be on the high side. What you require is the best distilling yeast to make heavy alcohols and even spirits that are excellent in taste and also character.